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Previous studies have shown that RV isolates can be translocated across large distances in infected salamanders that are used as bait for sport fishing (35, 44, 51).
Dot plot analysis comparing the genomic sequence of ATV to those of FV3 and TFV showed two major genomic inversions (36), while the FV3 and TFV genomes showed complete colinearity.
The data suggesting several recent host shifts among ranavirus species increase concern that these pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates may have the capacity to cross numerous poikilothermic species barriers and the potential to cause devastating disease in their new hosts.
have been recognized as major pathogens of economically and ecologically important cold-blooded vertebrates (8, 64).
For example, ranaviruses (RVs) have been isolated from amphibians in North America (6, 18, 24, 34, 35), Asia (27, 66), Australia (56), and the United Kingdom (10, 19), from fish (2, 41, 46), and from reptiles (3, 14, 30, 37, 42, 43).
In fact, ranaviruses are now considered agents of emerging infectious disease (9).
As interest in RVs has grown, the number of ranaviruses that have been completely sequenced has also increased.
These include frog virus 3 (FV3) (58), the type virus of the genus , the grouper iridovirus (GIV) (62) and the Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) (53), were recently sequenced.
In addition, at the time of preparation of the manuscript, the genomic sequence of the soft-shelled turtle ranavirus (STIV) became available (29).
Information obtained by comparing ranavirus genomic sequences offers insight into RV evolutionary history, identifies core groups of genes, and gives insight into the genes responsible for viral immune evasion and pathogenesis.
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) have been recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates.